The Problem of Vesico – Virginal Fistula (VVF) Disorder in Nigeria: The traumatic and post traumatic stressful consequences of VVF


  • Iyagba P. W. Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance and Counseling Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Rumuolumeni Campus Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria
  • Briggs, Victor D. Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance and Counseling Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Rumuolumeni Campus Port Harcourt Rivers State, Nigeria



Many mothers needlessly die each year due to complications of pregnancy and childbirth. The material mortality ration in the developing world ranges from 500 to 1,000 deaths per 100,000 live births. For each mother who dies, there are an estimated 16 to 30 women who suffer from other non lethal complications, vesico – virginal fistula (VVF) is the most tragic. Vesico – Virginal Fistula (VVF) is still a debilitating condition for women not only in developing countries but for women in all parts of the world. VVF represents a significant morbidity in female virology. The entity is one among the most distressing complications of gynecologic and obstetric procedures. Major complications associated with vesico – virginal fistula (VVF) disorder comprise initiative lower urinary trait symptoms, ureteric obstruction, and vaginal stenosis and reduced bladder capacity. This paper makes a bold attempt to investigate the traumatic and post – traumatic stress consequences of vesico – virginal fistula (VVF) several research studies have examined the psycho – emotional profile of the patients of vesico-vaginal fistula and some of these emotional reactions include depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety disorders, grief, to mention a few.


Ampofo, K, Out, T, Uchebo, G. (1990). Epidemio – logy of vesico-vaginal fistula in Northern Nigeria. West Afri J. Med.

Balagum, S. K. (1994). A comparison of psychological status of vesico vaginal fistula (VVF) sufferers and non sufferers in Southern Nigeria. IFE Psychologia. An international Journal.

Conversioner (2020). Psycho – emotional profiles: How to use them in marketing campaigns. Retrieved 29/01/2021 from

Ejembi, C. (2001). Problems associated with VVF. National Workshop on Management and Counseling of VVF patients. Liyafa Hotel, Katsina.

Gharoro, E. P, & Agholor, K. N. (2009). Aspects of psychological problems of patients with vesico vaginal fistula. Journal of Obstetric and Gynecology.

Ibrahim, T. Sadia, A. U & Daniel, S. O (2000). Characteristic of VVF patients as seen at the specialist hospital Sokoto, Nigeria. West Afri. J. Med.

Igbo, H. I (2020). Post – trauma effects of sudden health on survivors of Covid – 19 and other disasters. In D. I. Denga, H. M., Denga & F. Undyaundeye (eds.). Counseling: The psychological oxygen for mental health management of Covid – 19 victims. Calabar: RAPID EDUCATIONAL PUBLISHERS.

Ijaiya, M. A., Aboyeji, A. P. & Ijaiya ZBB. (2002). Epidemiological of vesico – vaginal fistula at the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital, Ilorin, Nigeria. Trop J. Obstet Gynecol.

Ijaiya, M.A & Aboyeji, P.A. (2004). Obstetric Urogenital fistula: The Ilorin experience, Nigeria. West African Journal of Medical.

Inimgba, N. M, Okpani, A. O. U & John C. T. (1999). Vesico – vaginal fistulae in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. Trop J. Obstet Gynaecol.

Kabir, M, Iliyasu, Z, Abubakar, I.S. & Umar, U. I., (2004). Medico-social problems of patients with vesico vaginal fistula in Murtala Mohammed specialist Hospital, Kano. Annuals of African Medical.

Kinanee, J.B., (2020). Psychology of human adjustment. Port Harcourt: Alheri Books.

Lewis, G. & Besnis, L. (2006). Obstetric fistula: Guiding principles for clinical management and programme development. Integrated management of pregnancy and childbirth. WHO Press.

Maheu, Giroux, M, Filoppi, V Sama doulougou, S. Castro, MC, Maulet, N & Meda, N. (2015). Prevalence of symptoms of vaginal fistula in 19 sub – Sahara African countries; a meta – analysis of national household survey data. Lancet Glob Heal.

Martin, E. F. (2003). Concise medical dictionary (6th ed.). New York: University Press.

Muleta, M. (2006). Obstetric fistula in developing countries: A review articles. J obstet gynecol.

Odu, B. K. (2013). The psycho – social consequences of vesico – vaginal fistula among women in Northern Nigeria. Arabian Journal of Business and Management Retrieved.

Odusoga, O. L., Oloyede, O.A.O, Fakoya, T.A., & Sule – Odu, A. O. (2001). Obstetric vesico – vaginal fistula in Sagamu. Nig Med Pract.

Ozge, T, Vandana T, Evelyn, Cynthia K. S & Saifuddin, A. (2017). Measuring the incidence and prevalence of obstetric fistula: approaches, needs and recommendations.

Raji, M.O, Hassan, M, Yusuf, M. H, Yusuf, R, Ahmad, A & Raji, H.O (2015). Knowledge, effect of vesico vaginal fistula (VVF) and satisfaction with VVF repair related services in a fistula repair facility in North Western Nigeria. International Journal of Contemporary Medical Research.

Rizvi, J. H. (1999). Genital fistula: A continuing tragedy. Jobs tet Gynecol.

Singha, V, Jhanwara, A, Mehrotra, S, Paul, S. & Sinhaa, R. J. (2015). A comparison of quality of life before and after successful repair of genitourinary fistula. Is there improvement across all the domains of WHO QOL – BREF questionnaire?. African Journal of Urology.

Tsui, A.O, Creanga, A.A. & Ahmed, S. (2007). The role of delayed childbearing in the prevention of obstetric fistulas. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics.

USAID. United States Agency International Development (USAID). USAID’s Fistula Program. (2015).

Waaldijk, K. & Armiya’u Y.D. (1993). The obstetric fistula: a major public health problem unresolved. Int uro-gynaecology Journal.

Wall, L.L, Arrow Smith, S. A., Briggs, N. D, Browning, A & Lassey, A. (2005). The obstetric vesico vaginal fistula in the developing world. Obstetrical & gynecological survey.

Wall, L.L, Karshima, J.A, Kirschner, C. & Arrow Smith, S.D. (2004). The obstetric vesico vaginal fistula: characteristics of 899 patients from JOS, Nigeria. Am J. Obstetric Gynecol.

Weston, K, Mutiso, S, Mwangi, J. W, Qureshi, Z, Beard, J & Venkat, P. (2011). Depression among women with obstetric fistula in Kenya. Int. J. Gynecol. Obstet.




How to Cite

Iyagba P. W., & Briggs, Victor D. (2021). The Problem of Vesico – Virginal Fistula (VVF) Disorder in Nigeria: The traumatic and post traumatic stressful consequences of VVF. International Journal of Culture and Modernity, 4(April).